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Steve Leonard

Location of Photo:

Markham, ON, Bortle 8/9

Date/Time of photo:

Sept. 9, 2021


Astro Tech AT115EDT APO refractor, ASI160MM Pro, Chroma 3 nm HA and OIII filters


The Pacman Nebula, NGC281, lies in the constellation Cassiopeia some 9500 light years away. Clouds of hydrogen and oxygen gas are ionized by a young open star cluster, resulting in colorful emission that is pierced by dust lanes. The image also shows many bok globules within the nebula, where gas and dust condense to form a molecular cloud where future stars may be born. This bicolour shot was taken under Bortle 8/9 skies just outside of Toronto with an 11.5 hour total integration.